### Behavioral Modeling

>> Introduction
>> The initial Construct
>> The always Construct
>> Procedural Assignments
>> Block Statements
>> Conditional (if-else) Statement
>> Case Statement
>> Loop Statements
>> Examples

Introduction

Behavioral modeling is the highest level of abstraction in the Verilog HDL. The other modeling techniques are relatively detailed. They require some knowledge of how hardware, or hardware signals work. The abstraction in this modeling is as simple as writing the logic in C language. This is a very powerful abstraction technique. All that designer needs is the algorithm of the design, which is the basic information for any design.

Most of the behavioral modeling is done using two important constructs: initial and always. All the other behavioral statements appear only inside these two structured procedure constructs.

The initial Construct

The statements which come under the initial construct constitute the initial block. The initial block is executed only once in the simulation, at time 0. If there is more than one initial block. Then all the initial blocks are executed concurrently. The initial construct is used as follows:

`initialbeginreset = 1'b0;clk = 1'b1;endorinitialclk = 1'b1;`

In the first initial block there are more than one statements hence they are written between begin and end. If there is only one statement then there is no need to put begin and end.

The always Construct

The statements which come under the always construct constitute the always block. The always block starts at time 0, and keeps on executing all the simulation time. It works like a infinite loop. It is generally used to model a functionality that is continuously repeated.

`always#5 clk = ~clk;initialclk = 1'b0;`

The above code generates a clock signal clk, with a time period of 10 units. The initial blocks initiates the clk value to 0 at time 0. Then after every 5 units of time it toggled, hence we get a time period of 10 units. This is the way in general used to generate a clock signal for use in test benches.

`always @(posedge clk, negedge reset)begina = b + c;    d = 1'b1;end`

In the above example, the always block will be executed whenever there is a positive edge in the clk signal, or there is negative edge in the reset signal. This type of always is generally used in implement a FSM, which has a reset signal.

`always @(b,c,d)begin    a = ( b + c )*d;    e = b | c;end`

In the above example, whenever there is a change in b, c, or d the always block will be executed. Here the list b, c, and d is called the sensitivity list.

In the Verilog 2000, we can replace always @(b,c,d) with always @(*), it is equivalent to include all input signals, used in the always block. This is very useful when always blocks is used for implementing the combination logic.

Procedural Assignments

Procedural assignments are used for updating reg, integer, time, real, realtime, and memory data types. The variables will retain their values until updated by another procedural assignment. There is a significant difference between procedural assignments and continuous assignments.
Continuous assignments drive nets and are evaluated and updated whenever an input operand changes value. Where as procedural assignments update the value of variables under the control of the procedural flow constructs that surround them.

The LHS of a procedural assignment could be:
• reg, integer, real, realtime, or time data type.
• Bit-select of a reg, integer, or time data type, rest of the bits are untouched.
• Part-select of a reg, integer, or time data type, rest of the bits are untouched.
• Memory word.
• Concatenation of any of the previous four forms can be specified.
When the RHS evaluates to fewer bits than the LHS, then if the right-hand side is signed, it will be sign-extended to the size of the left-hand side.

There are two types of procedural assignments: blocking and non-blocking assignments.

Blocking assignments: A blocking assignment statements are executed in the order they are specified in a sequential block. The execution of next statement begin only after the completion of the present blocking assignments. A blocking assignment will not block the execution of the next statement in a parallel block. The blocking assignments are made using the operator =.
`initialbegin    a = 1;    b = #5 2;    c = #2 3;end`

In the above example, a is assigned value 1 at time 0, and b is assigned value 2 at time 5, and c is assigned value 3 at time 7.

Non-blocking assignments: The nonblocking assignment allows assignment scheduling without blocking the procedural flow. The nonblocking assignment statement can be used whenever several variable assignments within the same time step can be made without regard to order or dependence upon each other. Non-blocking assignments are made using the operator <=.
Note: <= is same for less than or equal to operator, so whenever it appears in a expression it is considered to be comparison operator and not as non-blocking assignment.
`initialbegin    a <= 1;    b <= #5 2;    c <= #2 3;end`

In the above example, a is assigned value 1 at time 0, and b is assigned value 2 at time 5, and c is assigned value 3 at time 2 (because all the statements execution starts at time 0, as they are non-blocking assignments.

Block Statements

Block statements are used to group two or more statements together, so that they act as one statement. There are two types of blocks:
• Sequential block.
• Parallel block.
Sequential block: The sequential block is defined using the keywords begin and end. The procedural statements in sequential block will be executed sequentially in the given order. In sequential block delay values for each statement shall be treated relative to the simulation time of the execution of the previous statement. The control will pass out of the block after the execution of last statement.

Parallel block: The parallel block is defined using the keywords fork and join. The procedural statements in parallel block will be executed concurrently. In parallel block delay values for each statement are considered to be relative to the simulation time of entering the block. The delay control can be used to provide time-ordering for procedural assignments. The control shall pass out of the block after the execution of the last time-ordered statement.

Note that blocks can be nested. The sequential and parallel blocks can be mixed.

Block names: All the blocks can be named, by adding : block_name after the keyword begin or fork. The advantages of naming a block are:
• It allows to declare local variables, which can be accessed by using hierarchical name referencing.
• They can be disabled using the disable statement (disable block_name;).

Conditional (if-else) Statement

The condition (if-else) statement is used to make a decision whether a statement is executed or not. The keywords if and else are used to make conditional statement. The conditional statement can appear in the following forms.

`if ( condition_1 )    statement_1;if ( condition_2 )    statement_2;else    statement_3;if ( condition_3 )    statement_4;else if ( condition_4 )    statement_5;else    statement_6;if ( condition_5 )begin    statement_7;    statement_8;endelsebegin    statement_9;    statement_10;end`

Conditional (if-else) statement usage is similar to that if-else statement of C programming language, except that parenthesis are replaced by begin and end.

Case Statement

The case statement is a multi-way decision statement that tests whether an expression matches one of the expressions and branches accordingly. Keywords case and endcase are used to make a case statement. The case statement syntax is as follows.

`case (expression)    case_item_1: statement_1;    case_item_2: statement_2;    case_item_3: statement_3;    ...    ...    default: default_statement;endcase`

If there are multiple statements under a single match, then they are grouped using begin, and end keywords. The default item is optional.

Case statement with don't cares: casez and casex

casez treats high-impedance values (z) as don't cares. casex treats both high-impedance (z) and unknown (x) values as don't cares. Don't-care values (z values for casez, z and x values for casex) in any bit of either the case expression or the case items shall be treated as don't-care conditions during the comparison, and that bit position shall not be considered. The don't cares are represented using the ? mark.

Loop Statements

There are four types of looping statements in Verilog:

Forever Loop

Forever loop is defined using the keyword forever, which Continuously executes a statement. It terminates when the system task \$finish is called. A forever loop can also be ended by using the disable statement.

`initialbegin    clk = 1'b0;    forever #5 clk = ~clk;end`

In the above example, a clock signal with time period 10 units of time is obtained.

Repeat Loop

Repeat loop is defined using the keyword repeat. The repeat loop block continuously executes the block for a given number of times. The number of times the loop executes can be mention using a constant or an expression. The expression is calculated only once, before the start of loop and not during the execution of the loop. If the expression value turns out to be z or x, then it is treated as zero, and hence loop block is not executed at all.

`initialbegin    a = 10;    b = 5;    b <= #10 10;    i = 0;    repeat(a*b)    begin        \$display("repeat in progress");        #1 i = i + 1;    endend`

In the above example the loop block is executed only 50 times, and not 100 times. It calculates (a*b) at the beginning, and uses that value only.

While Loop

The while loop is defined using the keyword while. The while loop contains an expression. The loop continues until the expression is true. It terminates when the expression is false. If the calculated value of expression is z or x, it is treated as a false. The value of expression is calculated each time before starting the loop. All the statements (if more than one) are mentioned in blocks which begins and ends with keyword begin and end keywords.

`initialbegin    a = 20;    i = 0;    while (i < a)    begin    \$display("%d",i);    i = i + 1;    a = a - 1;    endend`

In the above example the loop executes for 10 times. ( observe that a is decrementing by one and i is incrementing by one, so loop terminated when both i and a become 10).

For Loop

The For loop is defined using the keyword for. The execution of for loop block is controlled by a three step process, as follows:
1. Executes an assignment, normally used to initialize a variable that controls the number of times the for block is executed.
2. Evaluates an expression, if the result is false or z or x, the for-loop shall terminate, and if it is true, the for-loop shall execute its block.
3. Executes an assignment normally used to modify the value of the loop-control variable and then repeats with second step.
Note that the first step is executed only once.

`initialbegin    a = 20;    for (i = 0; i < a; i = i + 1, a = a - 1)    \$display("%d",i);end`

The above example produces the same result as the example used to illustrate the functionality of the while loop.

Examples

1. Implementation of a 4x1 multiplexer.
`module 4x1_mux (out, in0, in1, in2, in3, s0, s1);output out;// out is declared as reg, as default is wirereg out;// out is declared as reg, because we will// do a procedural assignment to it.input in0, in1, in2, in3, s0, s1;// always @(*) is equivalent to// always @( in0, in1, in2, in3, s0, s1 )always @(*)begin  case ({s1,s0})      2'b00: out = in0;      2'b01: out = in1;      2'b10: out = in2;      2'b11: out = in3;      default: out = 1'bx;  endcaseendendmodule`

2. Implementation of a full adder.

`module full_adder (sum, c_out, in0, in1, c_in);output sum, c_out;reg sum, c_outinput in0, in1, c_in;always @(*)  {c_out, sum} = in0 + in1 + c_in;endmodule`

3. Implementation of a 8-bit binary counter.
`module ( count, reset, clk );output [7:0] count;reg [7:0] count;input reset, clk;// consider reset as active low signalalways @( posedge clk, negedge reset)begin  if(reset == 1'b0)      count <= 8'h00;  else      count <= count + 8'h01;endendmodule`

Implementation of a 8-bit counter is a very good example, which explains the advantage of behavioral modeling. Just imagine how difficult it will be implementing a 8-bit counter using gate-level modeling.
In the above example the incrementation occurs on every positive edge of the clock. When count becomes 8'hFF, the next increment will make it 8'h00, hence there is no need of any modulus operator. Reset signal is active low.

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>> Introduction
>> Differences
>> Functions
>> Examples

Introduction

Tasks and functions are introduced in the verilog, to provide the ability to execute common procedures from different places in a description. This helps the designer to break up large behavioral designs into smaller pieces. The designer has to abstract the similar pieces in the description and replace them either functions or tasks. This also improves the readability of the code, and hence easier to debug. Tasks and functions must be defined in a module and are local to the module. Tasks are used when:

• There are delay, timing, or event control constructs in the code.
• There is no input.
• There is zero output or more than one output argument.
Functions are used when:
• The code executes in zero simulation time.
• The code provides only one output(return value) and has at least one input.
• There are no delay, timing, or event control constructs.

Differences

 Functions Tasks Can enable another function but not another task. Can enable other tasks and functions. Executes in 0 simulation time. May execute in non-zero simulation time. Must not contain any delay, event, or timing control statements. May contain delay, event, or timing control statements. Must have at least one input argument. They can have more than one input. May have zero or more arguments of type input, output, or inout. Functions always return a single value. They cannot have output or inout arguments. Tasks do not return with a value, but can pass multiple values through output and inout arguments.

There are two ways of defining a task. The first way shall begin with the keyword task, followed by the optional keyword automatic, followed by a name for the task, and ending with the keyword endtask. The keyword automatic declares an automatic task that is reentrant with all the task declarations allocated dynamically for each concurrent task entry. Task item declarations can specify the following:
• Input arguments.
• Output arguments.
• Inout arguments.
• All data types that can be declared in a procedural block
The second way shall begin with the keyword task, followed by a name for the task and a parenthesis which encloses task port list. The port list shall consist of zero or more comma separated ports. The task body shall follow and then the keyword endtask.

In both ways, the port declarations are same. Tasks without the optional keyword automatic are static tasks, with all declared items being statically allocated. These items shall be shared across all uses of the task executing concurrently. Task with the optional keyword automatic are automatic tasks. All items declared inside automatic tasks are allocated dynamically for each invocation. Automatic task items can not be accessed by hierarchical references. Automatic tasks
can be invoked through use of their hierarchical name.

Functions

Functions are mainly used to return a value, which shall be used in an expression. The functions are declared using the keyword function, and definition ends with the keyword endfunction.

If a function is called concurrently from two locations, the results are non-deterministic because both calls operate on the same variable space. The keyword automatic declares a recursive function with all the function declarations allocated dynamically for each recursive call. Automatic function items can not be accessed by hierarchical references. Automatic functions can be invoked through the use of their hierarchical name.

When a function is declared, a register with function name is declared implicitly inside Verilog HDL. The output of a function is passed back by setting the value of that register appropriately.

Examples

`module example1_task;input addr;wire [31:0] addr;wire [23:0] addr_tag;wire [7:0] offset;task get_tag_and_offset ( addr, tag, offset);input addr;output tag, offset;begin tag = addr[31:8]; offset = addr[7:0];endendtaskalways @(addr)begin get_tag_and_offset (addr, addr_tag, addr_offset);end// other internals of moduleendmodule`

2. Task example, which uses the global variables of a module. Here task is used to do temperature conversion.
`module example2_global;real t1;real t2;// task uses the global variables of the moduletask t_convert;begin t2 = (9/5)*(t1+32);endendtaskalways @(t1)begin t_convert();endendmodule`

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### Dataflow Modeling

>> Introduction
>> The assign Statement
>> Delays
>> Examples

Introduction

Dataflow modeling is a higher level of abstraction. The designer no need have any knowledge of logic circuit. He should be aware of data flow of the design. The gate level modeling becomes very complex for a VLSI circuit. Hence dataflow modeling became a very important way of implementing the design.
In dataflow modeling most of the design is implemented using continuous assignments, which are used to drive a value onto a net. The continuous assignments are made using the keyword assign.

The assign statement

The assign statement is used to make continuous assignment in the dataflow modeling. The assign statement usage is given below:

assign out = in0 + in1; // in0 + in1 is evaluated and then assigned to out.

Note:

• The LHS of assign statement must always be a scalar or vector net or a concatenation. It cannot be a register.
• Continuous statements are always active statements.
• Registers or nets or function calls can come in the RHS of the assignment.
• The RHS expression is evaluated whenever one of its operands changes. Then the result is assigned to the LHS.
• Delays can be specified.
Examples:

assign out[3:0] = in0[3:0] & in1[3:0];

assign {o3, o2, o1, o0} = in0[3:0] | {in1[2:0],in2}; // Use of concatenation.

Implicit Net Declaration:

wire in0, in1;
assign out = in0 ^ in1;

In the above example out is undeclared, but verilog makes an implicit net declaration for out.

Implicit Continuous Assignment:

wire out = in0 ^ in1;

The above line is the implicit continuous assignment. It is same as,

wire out;
assign out = in0 ^ in1;

Delays

There are three types of delays associated with dataflow modeling. They are: Normal/regular assignment delay, implicit continuous assignment delay and net declaration delay.

Normal/regular assignment delay:

assign #10 out = in0 | in1;

If there is any change in the operands in the RHS, then RHS expression will be evaluated after 10 units of time. Lets say that at time t, if there is change in one of the operands in the above example, then the expression is calculated at t+10 units of time. The value of RHS operands present at time t+10 is used to evaluate the expression.

Implicit continuous assignment delay:

wire #10 out = in0 ^ in1;

is same as

wire out;
assign 10 out = in0 ^ in1;

Net declaration delay:

wire #10 out;
assign out = in;

is same as

wire out;
assign #10 out = in;

Examples

1. Implementation of a 2x4 decoder.
`module decoder_2x4 (out, in0, in1);output out[0:3];input in0, in1;// Data flow modeling uses logic operators.assign out[0:3] = { ~in0 & ~in1, in0 & ~in1,                  ~in0 & in1, in0 & in1 };endmodule`

2. Implementation of a 4x1 multiplexer.
`module mux_4x1 (out, in0, in1, in2, in3, s0, s1);output out;input in0, in1, in2, in3;input s0, s1;assign out = (~s0 & ~s1 & in0)|(s0 & ~s1 & in1)|             (~s0 & s1 & in2)|(s0 & s1 & in0);endmodule`

3. Implementation of a 8x1 multiplexer using 4x1 multiplexers.

`module mux_8x1 (out, in, sel);output out;input [7:0] in;input [2:0] sel;wire m1, m2;// Instances of 4x1 multiplexers.mux_4x1 mux_1 (m1, in[0], in[1], in[2],               in[3], sel[0], sel[1]);mux_4x1 mux_2 (m2, in[4], in[5], in[6],               in[7], sel[0], sel[1]);assign out = (~sel[2] & m1)|(sel[2] & m2);endmodule`

4. Implementation of a Full adder.
`module full_adder (sum, c_out, in0, in1, c_in);output sum, c_out;input in0, in1, c_in;assign { c_out, sum } = in0 + in1 + c_in;endmodule`

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### Gate-Level Modeling

>> Introduction
>> Gate Primitives
>> Delays
>> Examples

Introduction

In Verilog HDL a module can be defined using various levels of abstraction. There are four levels of abstraction in verilog. They are:

• Behavioral or algorithmic level: This is the highest level of abstraction. A module can be implemented in terms of the design algorithm. The designer no need to have any knowledge of hardware implementation.
• Data flow level: In this level the module is designed by specifying the data flow. Designer must how data flows between various registers of the design.
• Gate level: The module is implemented in terms of logic gates and interconnections between these gates. Designer should know the gate-level diagram of the design.
• Switch level: This is the lowest level of abstraction. The design is implemented using switches/transistors. Designer requires the knowledge of switch-level implementation details.
Gate-level modeling is virtually the lowest-level of abstraction, because the switch-level abstraction is rarely used. In general, gate-level modeling is used for implementing lowest level modules in a design like, full-adder, multiplexers, etc. Verilog HDL has gate primitives for all basic gates.

Gate Primitives

Gate primitives are predefined in Verilog, which are ready to use. They are instantiated like modules. There are two classes of gate primitives: Multiple input gate primitives and Single input gate primitives.
Multiple input gate primitives include and, nand, or, nor, xor, and xnor. These can have multiple inputs and a single output. They are instantiated as follows:

// Two input AND gate.
and and_1 (out, in0, in1);

// Three input NAND gate.
nand nand_1 (out, in0, in1, in2);

// Two input OR gate.
or or_1 (out, in0, in1);

// Four input NOR gate.
nor nor_1 (out, in0, in1, in2, in3);

// Five input XOR gate.
xor xor_1 (out, in0, in1, in2, in3, in4);

// Two input XNOR gate.
xnor and_1 (out, in0, in1);

Note that instance name is not mandatory for gate primitive instantiation. The truth tables of multiple input gate primitives are as follows:

Single input gate primitives include not, buf, notif1, bufif1, notif0, and bufif0. These have a single input and one or more outputs. Gate primitives notif1, bufif1, notif0, and bufif0 have a control signal. The gates propagate if only control signal is asserted, else the output will be high impedance state (z). They are instantiated as follows:

// Inverting gate.
not not_1 (out, in);

// Two output buffer gate.
buf buf_1 (out0, out1, in);

// Single output Inverting gate with active-high control signal.
notif1 notif1_1 (out, in, ctrl);

// Double output buffer gate with active-high control signal.
bufif1 bufif1_1 (out0, out1, in, ctrl);

// Single output Inverting gate with active-low control signal.
notif0 notif0_1 (out, in, ctrl);

// Single output buffer gate with active-low control signal.
bufif0 bufif1_0 (out, in, ctrl);

The truth tables are as follows:

Array of Instances:

wire [3:0] out, in0, in1;
and and_array[3:0] (out, in0, in1);

The above statement is equivalent to following bunch of statements:

and and_array0 (out[0], in0[0], in1[0]);
and and_array1 (out[1], in0[1], in1[1]);

and and_array2 (out[2], in0[2], in1[2]);
and and_array3 (out[3], in0[3], in1[3]);

>> Examples

Gate Delays:

In Verilog, a designer can specify the gate delays in a gate primitive instance. This helps the designer to get a real time behavior of the logic circuit.

Rise delay
: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to 1, from another value 0, x, or z.

Fall delay
: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to 0, from another value 1, x, or z.

Turn-off delay
: It is equal to the time taken by a gate output transition to high impedance state, from another value 1, x, or z.
• If the gate output changes to x, the minimum of the three delays is considered.
• If only one delay is specified, it is used for all delays.
• If two values are specified, they are considered as rise, and fall delays.
• If three values are specified, they are considered as rise, fall, and turn-off delays.
• The default value of all delays is zero.
and #(5) and_1 (out, in0, in1);
// All delay values are 5 time units.

nand #(3,4,5) nand_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay = 3, fall delay = 4, and turn-off delay = 5.

or #(3,4) or_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay = 3, fall delay = 4, and turn-off delay = min(3,4) = 3.

There is another way of specifying delay times in verilog, Min:Typ:Max values for each delay. This helps designer to have a much better real time experience of design simulation, as in real time logic circuits the delays are not constant. The user can choose one of the delay values using +maxdelays, +typdelays, and +mindelays at run time. The typical value is the default value.

and #(4:5:6) and_1 (out, in0, in1);
// For all delay values: Min=4, Typ=5, Max=6.

nand #(3:4:5,4:5:6,5:6:7) nand_1 (out, in0, in1);
// rise delay: Min=3, Typ=4, Max=5, fall delay: Min=4, Typ=5, Max=6, turn-off delay: Min=5, Typ=6, Max=7.

In the above example, if the designer chooses typical values, then rise delay = 4, fall delay = 5, turn-off delay = 6.

Examples:

1. Gate level modeling of a 4x1 multiplexer.

The gate-level circuit diagram of 4x1 mux is shown below. It is used to write a module for 4x1 mux.

`module 4x1_mux (out, in0, in1, in2, in3, s0, s1);// port declarationsoutput out; // Output port.input in0, in1, in2. in3; // Input ports.input s0, s1; // Input ports: select lines.// intermediate wireswire inv0, inv1; // Inverter outputs.wire a0, a1, a2, a3; // AND gates outputs.// Inverters.not not_0 (inv0, s0);not not_1 (inv1, s1);// 3-input AND gates.and and_0 (a0, in0, inv0, inv1);and and_1 (a1, in1, inv0, s1);and and_2 (a2, in2, s0, inv1);and and_3 (a3, in3, s0, s1);// 4-input OR gate.or or_0 (out, a0, a1, a2, a3);endmodule`

`module half_adder (sum, carry, in0, in1);output sum, carry;input in0, in1;// 2-input XOR gate.xor xor_1 (sum, in0, in1);// 2-input AND gate.and and_1 (carry, in0, in1);endmodule`

`module full_adder (sum, c_out, ino, in1, c_in);output sum, c_out;input in0, in1, c_in;wire s0, c0, c1;// Half adder : port connecting by order.half_adder ha_0 (s0, c0, in0, in1);// Half adder : port connecting by name.half_adder ha_1 (.sum(sum),                .in0(s0),                .in1(c_in),                .carry(c1));// 2-input XOR gate, to get c_out.xor xor_1 (c_out, c0, c1);endmodule`

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### Scheduling

The Verilog HDL is defined in terms of a discrete event execution model. A design consists of connected processes. Processes are objects that can be evaluated, that may have state, and that can respond to changes on their inputs to produce outputs. Processes include primitives, modules, initial and always procedural blocks, continuous assignments, asynchronous tasks, and procedural assignment statements.

The following definitions helps in better understanding of scheduling and execution of events:

• Update event: Every change in value of a net or variable in the circuit being simulated, as well as the named event, is considered as an update event.
• Evaluation event: Processes are sensitive to update events. When an update event is executed, all the processes that are sensitive to that event are evaluated in an arbitrary order. The evaluation of a process is also an event, known as an evaluation event.
• Simulation time: It is used to refer to the time value maintained by the simulator to model the actual time it would take for the circuit being simulated.
Events can occur at different times. In order to keep track of the events and to make sure they are processed in the correct order, the events are kept on an event queue, ordered by simulation time. Putting an event on the queue is called scheduling an event.

Scheduling events:

The Verilog event queue is logically segmented into five different regions. Each event will be added to one of the five regions in the queue but are only removed from the active region.
1. Active events: Events that occur at the current simulation time and can be processed in any order.
2. Inactive events: Events that occur at the current simulation time, but that shall be processed after all the active events are processed.
3. Nonblocking assign update events: Events that have been evaluated during some previous simulation time, but that shall be assigned at this simulation time after all the active and inactive events are processed.
4. Monitor events: Events that shall be processed after all the active, inactive, and nonblocking assign update events are processed.
5. Future events: Events that occur at some future simulation time. Future events are divided into future inactive events, and future nonblocking assignment update events.
The processing of all the active events is called a simulation cycle.

### List of Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ! Logical negation One || Logical OR Two && Logical AND Two

Relational Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators > Greater than Two < Less than Two >= Greater than or equal to Two <= Less than or equal to Two

Equality Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators == Equality Two != Inequality Two === Case equality Two !== Case inequality Two

Arithmetic Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators + Add Two - Substract Two * Multiply Two / Divide Two ** Power Two % Modulus Two

Bitwise Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ~ Bitwise negation One & Bitwise AND Two | Bitwise OR Two ^ Bitwise XOR Two ^~ or ~^ Bitwise XNOR Two

Reduction Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators & Reduction AND One ~& Reduction NAND One | Reduction OR One ~| Reduction NOR One ^ Reduction XOR One ^~ or ~^ Reduction XNOR One

Shift Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators >> Right shift Two << Left shift Two >>> Arithmetic right shift Two <<< Arithmetic left shift Two

Conditional Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ?: Conditional Two

Replication Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators { { } } Replication > One

Concatenation Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators { } Concatenation > One

Operator Precedence

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### Basics: Data Types

>> Value Set
>> Nets
>> Registers
>> Integers
>> Real Numbers
>> Parameters
>> Vectors
>> Arrays
>> Strings
>> Time Data Type

Value Set

The Verilog HDL value set consists of four basic values:

• 0 - represents a logic zero, or a false condition.
• 1 - represents a logic one, or a true condition.
• x - represents an unknown logic value.
• z - represents a high-impedance state.
The values 0 and 1 are logical complements of one another. Almost all of the data types in the Verilog HDL store all four basic values.

Nets

Nets are used to make connections between hardware elements. Nets simply reflect the value at one end(head) to the other end(tail). It means the value they carry is continuously driven by the output of a hardware element to which they are connected to. Nets are generally declared using the keyword wire. The default value of net (wire) is z. If a net has no driver, then its value is z.

Registers

Registers are data storage elements. They hold the value until they are replaced by some other value. Register doesn't need a driver, they can be changed at anytime in a simulation. Registers are generally declared with the keyword reg. Its default value is x. Register data types should not be confused with hardware registers, these are simply variables.

Integers

Integer is a register data type of 32 bits. The only difference of declaring it as integer is that, it becomes a signed value. When you declare it as a 32 bit register (array) it is an unsigned value. It is declared using the keyword integer.

Real Numbers

Real number can be declared using the keyword real. They can be assigned values as follows:
real r_1;

r_1 = 1.234; // Decimal notation.
r_1 = 3e4; // Scientific notation.

Parameters

Parameters are the constants that can be declared using the keyword parameter. Parameters are in general used for customization of a design. Parameters are declared as follows:

parameter p_1 = 123; // p_1 is a constant with value 123.

Keyword defparam can be used to change a parameter value at module instantiation. Keyword localparam is usedd to declare local parameters, this is used when their value should not be changed.

Vectors

Vectors can be a net or reg data types. They are declared as [high:low] or [low:high], but the left number is always the MSB of the vector.

wire [7:0] v_1; // v_1[7] is the MSB.
reg [0:15] v_2; // v_2[15] is the MSB.

In the above examples: If it is written as v_1[5:2], it is the part of the entire vector which contains 4 bits in order: v_1[5], v_1[4], v_1[3], v_1[2]. Similarly v_2[0:7], means the first half part of the vecotr v_2.
Vector parts can also be specified in a different way:
vector_name[start_bit+:width] : part-select increments from start_bit. In above example: v_2[0:7] is same as v_2[0+:8]. vector_name[start_bit-:width] : part-select decrements from start_bit. In above example: v_1[5:2] is same as v_1[5-:4].

Arrays

Arrays of reg, integer, real, time, and vectors are allowed. Arrays are declared as follows:

reg a_1[0:7];
real a_3[15:0];
wire [0:3] a_4[7:0]; // Array of vector
integer a_5[0:3][6:0]; // Double dimensional array

Strings

Strings are register data types. For storing a character, we need a 8-bit register data type. So if you want to create string variable of length n. The string should be declared as register data type of length n*8.

reg [8*8-1:0] string_1; // string_1 is a string of length 8.

Time Data Type

Time data type is declared using the keyword time. These are generally used to store simulation time. In general it is 64-bit long.

time t_1;
t_1 = \$time; // assigns current simulation time to t_1.

There are some other data types, but are considered to be advanced data types, hence they are not discussed here.

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### Ports

Modules communicate with external world using ports. They provide interface to the modules. A module definition contains list of ports. All ports in the list of ports must be declared in the module, ports can be one the following types:

• Input port, declared using keyword input.
• Output port, declared using keyword output.
• Bidirectional port, declared using keyword inout.
All the ports declared are considered to be as wire by default. If a port is intended to be a wire, it is sufficient to declare it as output, input, or inout. If output port holds its value it should be declared as reg type. Ports of type input and inout cannot be declared as reg because reg variables hold values and input ports should not hold values but simply reflect the changes in the external signals they are connected to.

Port Connection Rules
• Inputs: Always of type net(wire). Externally, they can be connected to reg or net type variable.
• Outputs: Can be of reg or net type. Externally, they must be connected to a net type variable.
• Bidirectional ports (inout): Always of type net. Externally, they must be connected to a net type variable.
Note:
• It is possible to connect internal and external ports of different size. In general you will receive a warning message for width mismatch.
• There can be unconnected ports in module instances.
Ports can declared in a module in C-language style:

module module_1( input a, input b, output c);
--
// Internals
--
endmodule

If there is an instance of above module, in some other module. Port connections can be made in two types.

Connection by Ordered List:
module_1 instance_name_1 ( A, B, C);
Connecting ports by name:
module_1 instance_name_2 (.a(A), .c(C), .b(B));

In connecting port by name, order is ignored.

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### Modules

A module is the basic building block in Verilog HDL. In general many elements are grouped to form a module, to provide a common functionality, which can be used at many places in the design. Port interface (using input and output ports) helps in providing the necessary functionality to the higher-level blocks. Thus any design modifications at lower level can be easily implemented without affecting the entire design code. The structure of a module is show in the figure below.
Keyword module is used to begin a module and it ends with the keyword endmodule. The syntax is as follows:
module module_name
---
// internals
---
endmodule

Example: D Flip-flop implementation (Try to understand the module structure, ignore unknown constraints/statements).

module D_FlipFlop(q, d, clk, reset);

// Port declarations
output q;
reg q;
input d, clk, reset;

// Internal statements - Logic
always @(posedge reset or poseedge clk)
if (reset)
q < = 1'b0;
else
q < = d;

// endmodule statement
endmodule

Note:

• Multiple modules can be defined in a single design file with any order.
• See that the endmodule statement should not written as endmodule; (no ; is used).
• All components except module, module name, and endmodule are optional.
• The 5 internal components can come in any order.

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1. Given the following Verilog code, what value of "a" is displayed?
always @(clk)
begin
a = 0;
a < = 1;
\$display(a);
end

2. What is the difference between a = #10 b; and #10 a = b; ?

3. Let "a" be a 3 bit reg value.
initial
begin
a < = 3'b101;
a = #5 3'b000;
a < = #10 3'b111;
a < = #30 3'b011;
a = #20 3'b010;
a < = #5 3'b110;
end
What will be the value of "a" at time 0,5,10,... units till 40 units of time?

4. Write a verilog code to swap contents of two registers with and without using a temporary register.

5. What is the difference between:
c = check ? a : b; and
if(check) c = a;
else c = b;

6. What does `timescale 1 ns/ 1 ps’ signify in a verilog code?

7. what is the use of defparam?

8. What is a sensitivity list?

9. In a pure combinational circuit is it necessary to mention all the inputs in sensitivity list? If yes, why? If not, why?

10. How to generate sine wave using verilog coding style?

### Microprocessor Interview Questions - 2

1. What is Program counter?

2. Do 8085(8-bit processor) have any 16 bit registers?

3. What type of Stack is used in 8085?

4. What is HLT?

5. What is a bus?

6. What is Quality factor?

7. What is tri-state logic?