1. How do you convert a XOR gate into a buffer and a inverter (Use only one XOR gate for each)?
2. Implement an 2-input AND gate using a 2x1 mux.
3. What is a multiplexer?
A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output.
4. What is a ring counter?
A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 1100, the repeating pattern is: 1100, 0110, 0011, 1001, 1100, so on.
5. Compare and Contrast Synchronous and Asynchronous reset.
Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant. The clock works as a filter for small reset glitches; however, if these glitches occur near the active clock edge, the Flip-flop could go metastable. In some designs, the reset must be generated by a set of internal conditions. A synchronous reset is recommended for these types of designs because it will filter the logic equation glitches between clock.
Problem with synchronous resets is that the synthesis tool cannot easily distinguish the reset signal from any other data signal. Synchronous resets may need a pulse stretcher to guarantee a reset pulse width wide enough to ensure reset is present during an active edge of the clock, if you have a gated clock to save power, the clock may be disabled coincident with the assertion of reset. Only an asynchronous reset will work in this situation, as the reset might be removed prior to the resumption of the clock. Designs that are pushing the limit for data path timing, can not afford to have added gates and additional net delays in the data path due to logic inserted to handle synchronous resets.
Asynchronous reset: The major problem with asynchronous resets is the reset release, also called reset removal. Using an asynchronous reset, the designer is guaranteed not to have the reset added to the data path. Another advantage favoring asynchronous resets is that the circuit can be reset with or without a clock present. Ensure that the release of the reset can occur within one clock period else if the release of the reset occurred on or near a clock edge then flip-flops may go into metastable state.
6. What is a Johnson counter?
Johnson counter connects the complement of the output of the last shift register to its input and circulates a stream of ones followed by zeros around the ring. For example, in a 4-register counter, the repeating pattern is: 0000, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011, 0001, so on.
7. An assembly line has 3 fail safe sensors and one emergency shutdown switch.The line should keep moving unless any of the following conditions arise:
(1) If the emergency switch is pressed
(2) If the senor1 and sensor2 are activated at the same time.
(3) If sensor 2 and sensor3 are activated at the same time.
(4) If all the sensors are activated at the same time
Suppose a combinational circuit for above case is to be implemented only with NAND Gates. How many minimum number of 2 input NAND gates are required?
Solve it out!
8. In a 4-bit Johnson counter How many unused states are present?
4-bit Johnson counter: 0000, 1000, 1100, 1110, 1111, 0111, 0011, 0001, 0000.
8 unused states are present.
9. Design a 3 input NAND gate using minimum number of 2 input NAND gates.
10. How can you convert a JK flip-flop to a D flip-flop?