### One-hot Encoding

Designing a FSM is the most common and challenging task for every digital logic designer. One of the key factors for optimizing a FSM design is the choice of state coding, which influences the complexity of the logic functions, the hardware costs of the circuits, timing issues, power usage, etc. There are several options like binary encoding, gray encoding, one-hot encoding, etc. The choice of the designer depends on the factors like technology, design specifications, etc.

One-hot encoding

In one-hot encoding only one bit of the state vector is asserted for any given state. All other state bits are zero. Thus if there are n states then n state flip-flops are required. As only one bit remains logic high and rest are logic low, it is called as One-hot encoding.
Example: If there is a FSM, which has 5 states. Then 5 flip-flops are required to implement the FSM using one-hot encoding. The states will have the following values:
S0 - 10000
S1 - 01000
S2 - 00100
S3 - 00010
S4 - 00001

• State decoding is simplified, since the state bits themselves can be used directly to check whether the FSM is in a particular state or not. Hence additional logic is not required for decoding, this is extremely advantageous when implementing a big FSM.
• Low switching activity, hence resulting low power consumption, and less prone to glitches.
• Modifying a design is easier. Adding or deleting a state and changing state transition equations (combinational logic present in FSM) can be done without affecting the rest of the design.
• Faster than other encoding techniques. Speed is independent of number of states, and depends only on the number of transitions into a particular state.
• Finding the critical path of the design is easier (static timing analysis).
• One-hot encoding is particularly advantageous for FPGA implementations. If a big FSM design is implemented using FPGA, regular encoding like binary, gray, etc will use fewer flops for the state vector than one-hot encoding, but additional logic blocks will be required to encode and decode the state. But in FPGA each logic block contains one or more flip-flops (click here to know why?) hence due to presence of encoding and decoding more logics block will be used by regular encoding FSM than one-hot encoding FSM.
• The only disadvantage of using one-hot encoding is that it required more flip-flops than the other techniques like binary, gray, etc. The number of flip-flops required grows linearly with number of states. Example: If there is a FSM with 38 states. One-hot encoding requires 38 flip-flops where as other require 6 flip-flops only.

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### Setup and Hold TIme

Every flip-flop has restrictive time regions around the active clock edge in which input should not change. We call them restrictive because any change in the input in this regions the output may be the expected one (*see below). It may be derived from either the old input, the new input, or even in between the two. Here we define, two very important terms in the digital clocking. Setup and Hold time.
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In the above figure, the shaded region is the restricted region. The shaded region is divided into two parts by the dashed line. The left hand side part of shaded region is the setup time period and the right hand side part is the hold time…

### Gate-Level Modeling

>> Introduction
>> Gate Primitives
>> Delays
>> Examples

Introduction

In Verilog HDL a module can be defined using various levels of abstraction. There are four levels of abstraction in verilog. They are:
Behavioral or algorithmic level: This is the highest level of abstraction. A module can be implemented in terms of the design algorithm. The designer no need to have any knowledge of hardware implementation.Data flow level: In this level the module is designed by specifying the data flow. Designer must how data flows between various registers of the design.Gate level: The module is implemented in terms of logic gates and interconnections between these gates. Designer should know the gate-level diagram of the design.Switch level: This is the lowest level of abstraction. The design is implemented using switches/transistors. Designer requires the knowledge of switch-level implementation details.
Gate-level modeling is virtually the lowest-level of abstraction, because t…