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VLSI Interview Questions - 5

This sections contains interview questions related to LOW POWER VLSI DESIGN.

1. What are the important aspects of VLSI optimization?
Answer

2. What are the sources of power dissipation?
Answer

3. What is the need for power reduction?
Answer

4. Give some low power design techniques.
Answer

5. Give a disadvantage of voltage scaling technique for power reduction.
Answer

6. Give an expression for switching power dissipation.
Answer

7. Will glitches in a logic circuit cause power wastage?
Answer

8. What is the major source of power wastage in SRAM?
Answer

9. What is the major problem associated with caches w.r.t low power design? Give techniques to overcome it.
Answer

10. Does software play any role in low power design?
Answer

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3. What is a multiplexer?
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A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output.

4. What is a ring counter?
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A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 1100, the repeating pattern is: 1100, 0110, 0011, 1001, 1100, so on.

5. Compare and Contrast Synchronous and Asynchronous reset.
Answer

Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant. The clock works as a filter for small reset gl…

Gate-Level Modeling

>> Introduction
>> Gate Primitives
>> Delays
>> Examples


Introduction

In Verilog HDL a module can be defined using various levels of abstraction. There are four levels of abstraction in verilog. They are:
Behavioral or algorithmic level: This is the highest level of abstraction. A module can be implemented in terms of the design algorithm. The designer no need to have any knowledge of hardware implementation.Data flow level: In this level the module is designed by specifying the data flow. Designer must how data flows between various registers of the design.Gate level: The module is implemented in terms of logic gates and interconnections between these gates. Designer should know the gate-level diagram of the design.Switch level: This is the lowest level of abstraction. The design is implemented using switches/transistors. Designer requires the knowledge of switch-level implementation details.
Gate-level modeling is virtually the lowest-level of abstraction, because t…

Synchronous Reset vs. Asynchronous Reset

Why Reset?

A Reset is required to initialize a hardware design for system operation and to force an ASIC into a known state for simulation.

A reset simply changes the state of the device/design/ASIC to a user/designer defined state. There are two types of reset, what are they? As you can guess them, they are Synchronous reset and Asynchronous reset.

Synchronous Reset

A synchronous reset signal will only affect or reset the state of the flip-flop on the active edge of the clock. The reset signal is applied as is any other input to the state machine.

Advantages:
The advantage to this type of topology is that the reset presented to all functional flip-flops is fully synchronous to the clock and will always meet the reset recovery time.Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant…