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Field-Programmable Gate Array

A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device containing programmable logic components called "logic blocks", and programmable interconnects. Logic blocks can be programmed to perform the function of basic logic gates such as AND, and XOR, or more complex combinational functions such as decoders or mathematical functions. In most FPGAs, the logic blocks also include memory elements, which may be simple flip-flops or more complete blocks of memory.

  • ASIC prototyping: Due to high cost of ASIC chips, the logic of the application is first verified by dumping HDL code in a FPGA. This helps for faster and cheaper testing. Once the logic is verified then they are made into ASICs.
  • Very useful in applications that can make use of the massive parallelism offered by their architecture. Example: code breaking, in particular brute-force attack, of cryptographic algorithms.
  • FPGAs are sued for computational kernels such as FFT or Convolution instead of a microprocessor.
  • Applications include digital signal processing, software-defined radio, aerospace and defense systems, medical imaging, computer vision, speech recognition, cryptography, bio-informatics, computer hardware emulation and a growing range of other areas.

FPGA consists of large number of "configurable logic blocks" (CLBs) and routing channels. Multiple I/O pads may fit into the height of one row or the width of one column in the array. In general all the routing channels have the same width. The block diagram of FPGA architecture is shown below.

CLB: The CLB consists of an n-bit look-up table (LUT), a flip-flop and a 2x1 mux. The value n is manufacturer specific. Increase in n value can increase the performance of a FPGA. Typically n is 4. An n-bit lookup table can be implemented with a multiplexer whose select lines are the inputs of the LUT and whose inputs are constants. An n-bit LUT can encode any n-input Boolean function by modeling such functions as truth tables. This is an efficient way of encoding Boolean logic functions, and LUTs with 4-6 bits of input are in fact the key component of modern FPGAs. The block diagram of a CLB is shown below.

Each CLB has n-inputs and only one input, which can be either the registered or the unregistered LUT output. The output is selected using a 2x1 mux. The LUT output is registered using the flip-flop (generally D flip-flop). The clock is given to the flip-flop, using which the output is registered. In general, high fanout signals like clock signals are routed via special-purpose dedicated routing networks, they and other signals are managed separately.

Routing channels are programmed to connect various CLBs. The connecting done according to the design. The CLBs are connected in such a way that logic of the design is achieved.

FPGA Programming

The design is first coded in HDL (Verilog or VHDL), once the code is validated (simulated and synthesized). During synthesis, typically done using tools like Xilinx ISE, FPGA Advantage, etc, a technology-mapped net list is generated. The net list can then be fitted to the actual FPGA architecture using a process called place-and-route, usually performed by the FPGA company's proprietary place-and-route software. The user will validate the map, place and route results via timing analysis, simulation, and other verification methodologies. Once the design and validation process is complete, the binary file generated is used to (re)configure the FPGA. Once the FPGA is (re)configured, it is tested. If there are any issues or modifications, the original HDL code will be modified and then entire process is repeated, and FPGA is reconfigured.


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Digital Design Interview Questions - All in 1

1. How do you convert a XOR gate into a buffer and a inverter (Use only one XOR gate for each)?

2. Implement an 2-input AND gate using a 2x1 mux.

3. What is a multiplexer?

A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output.

4. What is a ring counter?

A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 1100, the repeating pattern is: 1100, 0110, 0011, 1001, 1100, so on.

5. Compare and Contrast Synchronous and Asynchronous reset.

Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant. The clock works as a filter for small reset gl…

Setup and Hold TIme

Every flip-flop has restrictive time regions around the active clock edge in which input should not change. We call them restrictive because any change in the input in this regions the output may be the expected one (*see below). It may be derived from either the old input, the new input, or even in between the two. Here we define, two very important terms in the digital clocking. Setup and Hold time.
The setup time is the interval before the clock where the data must be held stable.The hold time is the interval after the clock where the data must be held stable. Hold time can be negative, which means the data can change slightly before the clock edge and still be properly captured. Most of the current day flip-flops has zero or negative hold time.

In the above figure, the shaded region is the restricted region. The shaded region is divided into two parts by the dashed line. The left hand side part of shaded region is the setup time period and the right hand side part is the hold time…

Gate-Level Modeling

>> Introduction
>> Gate Primitives
>> Delays
>> Examples


In Verilog HDL a module can be defined using various levels of abstraction. There are four levels of abstraction in verilog. They are:
Behavioral or algorithmic level: This is the highest level of abstraction. A module can be implemented in terms of the design algorithm. The designer no need to have any knowledge of hardware implementation.Data flow level: In this level the module is designed by specifying the data flow. Designer must how data flows between various registers of the design.Gate level: The module is implemented in terms of logic gates and interconnections between these gates. Designer should know the gate-level diagram of the design.Switch level: This is the lowest level of abstraction. The design is implemented using switches/transistors. Designer requires the knowledge of switch-level implementation details.
Gate-level modeling is virtually the lowest-level of abstraction, because t…