### List of Operators

>> Logical Operators
>> Relational Operators
>> Equality Operators
>> Arithmetic Operators
>> Bitwise Operators
>> Reduction Operators
>> Shift Operators
>> Conditional Operators
>> Replication Operators
>> Concatenation Operators
>> Operator Precedence

Logical Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ! Logical negation One || Logical OR Two && Logical AND Two

Relational Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators > Greater than Two < Less than Two >= Greater than or equal to Two <= Less than or equal to Two

Equality Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators == Equality Two != Inequality Two === Case equality Two !== Case inequality Two

Arithmetic Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators + Add Two - Substract Two * Multiply Two / Divide Two ** Power Two % Modulus Two

Bitwise Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ~ Bitwise negation One & Bitwise AND Two | Bitwise OR Two ^ Bitwise XOR Two ^~ or ~^ Bitwise XNOR Two

Reduction Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators & Reduction AND One ~& Reduction NAND One | Reduction OR One ~| Reduction NOR One ^ Reduction XOR One ^~ or ~^ Reduction XNOR One

Shift Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators >> Right shift Two << Left shift Two >>> Arithmetic right shift Two <<< Arithmetic left shift Two

Conditional Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators ?: Conditional Two

Replication Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators { { } } Replication > One

Concatenation Operators

 Symbol Description #Operators { } Concatenation > One

Operator Precedence << Previous Home Next >>

### Digital Design Interview Questions - All in 1

1. How do you convert a XOR gate into a buffer and a inverter (Use only one XOR gate for each)?

2. Implement an 2-input AND gate using a 2x1 mux.

3. What is a multiplexer?

A multiplexer is a combinational circuit which selects one of many input signals and directs to the only output.

4. What is a ring counter?

A ring counter is a type of counter composed of a circular shift register. The output of the last shift register is fed to the input of the first register. For example, in a 4-register counter, with initial register values of 1100, the repeating pattern is: 1100, 0110, 0011, 1001, 1100, so on.

5. Compare and Contrast Synchronous and Asynchronous reset.

Synchronous reset logic will synthesize to smaller flip-flops, particularly if the reset is gated with the logic generating the d-input. But in such a case, the combinational logic gate count grows, so the overall gate count savings may not be that significant. The clock works as a filter for small reset gl…

### Setup and Hold TIme

Every flip-flop has restrictive time regions around the active clock edge in which input should not change. We call them restrictive because any change in the input in this regions the output may be the expected one (*see below). It may be derived from either the old input, the new input, or even in between the two. Here we define, two very important terms in the digital clocking. Setup and Hold time.
The setup time is the interval before the clock where the data must be held stable.The hold time is the interval after the clock where the data must be held stable. Hold time can be negative, which means the data can change slightly before the clock edge and still be properly captured. Most of the current day flip-flops has zero or negative hold time.

In the above figure, the shaded region is the restricted region. The shaded region is divided into two parts by the dashed line. The left hand side part of shaded region is the setup time period and the right hand side part is the hold time…

### Gate-Level Modeling

>> Introduction
>> Gate Primitives
>> Delays
>> Examples

Introduction

In Verilog HDL a module can be defined using various levels of abstraction. There are four levels of abstraction in verilog. They are:
Behavioral or algorithmic level: This is the highest level of abstraction. A module can be implemented in terms of the design algorithm. The designer no need to have any knowledge of hardware implementation.Data flow level: In this level the module is designed by specifying the data flow. Designer must how data flows between various registers of the design.Gate level: The module is implemented in terms of logic gates and interconnections between these gates. Designer should know the gate-level diagram of the design.Switch level: This is the lowest level of abstraction. The design is implemented using switches/transistors. Designer requires the knowledge of switch-level implementation details.
Gate-level modeling is virtually the lowest-level of abstraction, because t…